Thoughtful Birds

Chickens (and to a lesser extent) birds in general—have historically been dismissed as unintelligent, operating primarily by instinct.  However, in recent years, scientists have developed a new understanding of the avian brain and have realized that birds are not the “birdbrains” we once thought.  
 
Dr's. Lesley J. Rogers, Emeritus Professor at the University of New England, Australia; Giorgio Vallortigara, Director of the Center for Mind/Brain Sciences at the University of Trento, Italy; and K-Lynn Smith, an Associate Lecturer in the Department of Brain, Behavior, and Evolution at Macquarie University, Australia are among a number of animal behaviorists studying chicken cognition and behavior.  
 
These interviews are excerpts from the video “Thoughtful Birds in Action: Mental Feats the Avian Way,” produced by A Question of Balance, a grassroots environmental radio show from a Sydney, Australia community radio station, reproduced here with permission.  This video presents compelling footage from ethological studies by leading researchers from Italy, New Zealand and Australia that demonstrate the complex higher cognitive abilities of birds. 
 

Interview with Chicken Ethologist Dr. Giorgio Vallortigara, University of Trento, Italy

 

Could you please give the lay people in our audience a brief overview of your studies of chickens and the results your studies have yielded?

Basically, I use the young domestic chicks to investigate the origins of knowledge; I’m interested in core knowledge abilities like number, space, time and cause, and I am trying to clarify how much of these abilities are already available at birth, before interactions with objects of the world may have shaped them through learning and experience. We found that indeed newly hatched chicks do possess surprisingly sophisticated abilities at birth, they know about basic principles of physics (such as solidity), could perform basic arithmetic (with small numerousness), they can deal with the geometry of enclosed surfaces to orient and navigate… and show several others abilities. Interestingly, some of these abilities seem also apparent precociously in the behavior of human newborns. We are now investigating the underlying brain mechanisms of these mental capabilities.

 

What caused you to start studying chickens specifically?  What interested you about them?

I needed a model in which experience can be controlled for precisely and behavioural testing can be done very early. Chicks are a precocial species, and thus are perfect in this regard. Soon after hatching they are mature enough from a sensory and motor point of view to allow experimenters to carry on sophisticated cognitive tests.

 

Had you interacted with chickens much before beginning your studies?  What was your opinion of chickens before you started working with them?   What, if anything, surprised you about chickens’ mental functions?

I remembered to have been looking at them as a child when visiting farms during the week ends or during holidays with my parents. I liked them but, frankly, I could not have imagined they should have been the companions of my scientific life…

I can’t say I was really surprised by their mental capacities. In these years I worked with a variety of animals, from fish to dogs, from bees to chimpanzees. My feeling is that minds are everywhere in the natural world, though they are apparent as different kinds of minds.

 

This exhibit asks three main questions: How do we as a society view chickens?  How do we treat chickens?  And who are chickens really?  How would you personally answer those questions?

Well, to answer succinctly to your first two questions, I suspect that, among domesticated species, chickens are probably the most exploited and the less respected. Chickens, I believe, are quite fascinating animals, with a rich social life and the same basic cognitive abilities of other birds and mammals with similar eco-ethological characteristics.

 

Do you see any ethical implications of your studies?  Do you think we as a culture should change our view and/or treatment of chickens?

Frankly, no I do not see any particular ethical implication from my research. I believe we should treat animals humanely irrespective of their mental capacities. I would urge people to treat chickens with respect even if they were not intelligent as they are.

 

Do you have any stories from your experience with chickens that you think would illustrate who chickens are to the public?

I have a funny story that illustrates perhaps how humans look at mental capacities. Usually, after our cognitive tests we donate our chicks to local farmers. Years ago I had a student working in my lab whose uncle was a farmer. So the chicks for a period were donated to his uncle and the student had the opportunity to look at the chicks’ development. He noticed, much to his surprise, that male chicks coming from the lab tended to became the dominant ones in the groups when adults. His uncle however had an explanation for this, he commented: “Of course, they are clever, they attended to the university!” The correct explanation was in fact more trivial, alas. We have got our eggs from hatchery that raised broiler chickens, selected to grow up very rapidly, and much more rapidly and efficiently than the indigenous strains available to the uncle of my student.

In Giorgio Vallortigara's studies, chicks are imprinted on various objects so they will follow them, the way they would follow their mother.  This allows the chicks to demonstrate their ability to count, add, subtract, and understand simple geometry.
This chick has been imprinted on a red triangle.  By consistently favoring the image on the left, the chick demonstrates the ability to identify the triangle even when partially obstructed.  This understanding helps a chick recognize and follow his mother, even if she is obstructed behind vegetation.  This ability is beyond human infants.
Giorgio Vallortigara's studies have demonstrated that chicks can count and perform simple addition and subtraction at only a few days of age.
Giorgio Vallortigara's studies have also demonstrated that chicks understand that an object is the same even if partially or fully hidden, a concept beyond human infants.
A chick can recognize a pattern of lights in the basic shape of a hen moving consistenly with a hen's movements.  The chick will not respond to scrambled light movements.
In Spanish and Italian.

Chick Demonstrates Understanding of Basic Arithmetic in Giorgio Vallortigara's Studies

In his studies, Giorgio Vallortigara has found that newly hatched chicks understand basic principles of physics (such as solidity), can perform basic arithmetic (with small numerousness), and can use the geometry of enclosed surfaces to orient and navigate. The chick in this video has been imprinted on the yellow canisters, with the idea that s/he will want to go toward the larger group of them. S/he watches a researcher place canisters behind the screens, four on one side, one on the other. The researcher then moves one canister from the group of four to behind the other screen, so that the groups contain two and three canisters, respectively. The chick, who cannot see the final groups of canisters behind the opaque screens, is now released. S/he heads directly toward the group of three, indicating that s/he has kept track of the canisters' locations and recognises which screen covers the larger number of canisters.

Interview with Chicken Ethologist Dr. Lesley Rogers, University of New England, Australia

Could you please give the laypeople in our audience a brief overview of your studies of chickens and the results your studies have yielded?

I discovered that chickens have lateralized brains, meaning that one hemisphere of the brain processes information differently than does the other hemisphere, and controls a different set of behaviour. This was an important finding because up until then lateralization had been thought of as a special characteristic unique to humans and to be an explanation for our perceived superior mental capacity.  We now know that having a lateralized brain is widespread amongst vertebrates. The research on the chicken led the way to a whole field of enquiry into lateralized brain and behaviour in other species.

I also showed that lateralization of the visual pathways and visual behaviour in the chicken comes about as a result of the eggs being exposed to light briefly (2 or more hours) during the final stages before hatching. At this stage of development the embryo is turned in the egg so that its right eye is next to the egg shell and its left eye is covered by the embryo’s body. This means that light entering the egg through the shell and membranes stimulates only the right eye and this leads on to the visual lateralization. If eggs are incubated in the dark, the chicks that hatch from them have no visual lateralization and we have shown that they are less able to perform two tasks simultaneously (i.e., attend to potential predators and at the same time find food grains scattered on a background of pebbles). Lateralized chicks use their left hemisphere to search for the food grains and their right hemisphere to watch out for predators.

 

What caused you to start studying chickens specifically?  What interested you about them?

My first research on chicks was not for particularly noble reasons. They were the species on which my PhD supervisor worked with a view to understand behaviour: how it develops and is controlled. They were a model species for this sort of research.

 

Had you interacted with chickens much before beginning your studies?  What was your opinion of chickens before you started working with them?   What, if anything, surprised you about chickens’ mental functions?

I grew up with chickens because my father kept them in our back yard for their eggs. As a child, I spent many hours watching them. I had a pair of bantams, called Darby and Joan, who roamed free in the yard and slept on the rafters of the shed roof. They hatched chicks several times. I loved them.

Also my parents won a raffle draw and the prize was a chicken. It arrived under the arm of a young boy. It was a live rooster and, I remember, it was almost as big as the boy. My parents had been expecting a dressed chicken ready to eat for Christmas – chicken was special eaten in Australia only at Christmas in those days long before the fast-food chains had arrived. A live rooster was a different proposition. It had been meant for sacrifice but, since my father could not bring himself to do that and none of us would have abided that terrible act, the rooster lived out its life terrorizing us for many years every time we went into the back yard. He would chase and attack us, not mindful of the fact that we had saved his life! So, you see, I learnt a healthy respect for chickens early in life. I knew they were as intelligent as our dogs but saw them as more independent of human contact.

 

This exhibit asks three main questions: How do we as a society view chickens?  How do we treat chickens?  And who are chickens really?  How would you personally answer those questions?

Now chicken meat is eaten regularly and eggs can be readily purchased from supermarkets. Chickens are treated as commodities to be exploited and in horrific conditions. If you walk into a battery chicken farm, you will see disturbed and strangely behaving birds. Surprisingly, birds released from these cages into better, free-range environments express again much of the behaviour typical of chickens raised in more natural conditions. Despite the poverty of their existence in battery cages, they can regain a broad repertoire of behaviour impossible for them to express in confinement of cages and in overcrowded conditions. This means that battery hens are just as cognitively complex as all chickens; they have not adapted or been bred to accept living in such conditions, as some claim.

Recent scientific tests of the cognitive abilities of chickens reveal that, even in the first days of life, they can solve complex problems, navigate using spatial cues, recognize faces and predators, adapt their behaviour to context, communicate vocally and visually and have the capacity to deal with numbers. They can even learn about certain smells and they can detect magnetic fields and use them to find a food source.

 

Do you see any ethical implications of your studies?  Do you think we as a culture should change our view and/or treatment of chickens?

Of course, it is imperative that we change our view of chickens. They are no less intelligent than other birds and, as we now know, the cognition of birds matches that of mammals. It is completely incorrect to view chickens and dumb birds and stupid. The latter views have come about in societies that wish only to exploit chickens for their eggs and flesh.

 

Starting with United Poultry Concerns founder Karen Davis, a number of animal advocates and organizations have used your book The Development of Brain and Behaviour in the Chicken to argue for chickens’ rights.  How do you feel about that?

That pleases me greatly.

Interview with Chicken Ethologist Dr. K-Lynn Smith, Macquarie University, Australia

 
Could you please give the laypeople in our audience a brief overview of your studies of chickens and the results your studies have yielded?
 
A little background about domestic chickens: all chickens are descended for wild red jungle fowl. These birds evolved in the dense forests of China and Indonesia. Groups of males and females lived in long-term stable social groups and both sexes had a dominance hierarchy. Domestic chickens have retained many of the behaviors of their wild ancestors including complex communication, individual recognition of each other by their faces and voices, and the ability to behave deceptively. I’m going to focus here on their communication.
 
Chickens use over 24 different types of vocalization.  Many of the sounds and visual displays they produce are not simply a reflexive or automatic response but depend upon the context and the identity of the other individuals that are around them at the time. Moreover, some of the sounds and behaviors refer specifically to important events, such as the presence of food or predators.  These vocalizations are so specific that the sound alone is sufficient for the listener to respond appropriately. Their ability to communicate about their world is actually more sophisticated than that of some primate species.  
 
Let’s take the example of what happens when a male finds a high-quality food item in the presence of a female. He starts by giving a series of staccato calls and bobbing his head up and down using his beak to point towards the food. He’ll often pick it up and drop it repeatedly, suppressing the urge to eat the tasty morsel. The female usually responds by approaching and taking the food from him. Why should a male give up food for the female? The reason is that females prefer to mate with the male that provides the most food. (As an aside, females eavesdrop on the male’s interactions with other females and remember which ones are the best providers overall for the whole group, not just for her.) 
 
As you might imagine, this creates competition between the males to display for the females. Within a group, there is a dominant male, who attempts to control the behavior of the other males, and several subordinates.  If a subordinate displays with food and the dominant male hears him, the dominant male will rush over and attack the subordinate, causing him to drop the food.  The dominant will then display for the female and feed her. To avoid being attacked and losing his food, subordinates often just do the visual display without making a sound. The hen sees the display, recognizes that the subordinate has food, and takes the food from him. This sneaky behavior allows the subordinate to feed a hen while avoiding the punishment from the dominant male.
 
But that’s not all.  Some males will call and display when they haven’t found food ‘hoping’ that the female will still approach him.  He can then court her (using a display called waltzing) or even attempt to force copulate with her (not everything in the chicken world is nice).  So females also remember which males call without food and stop responding to them.  This shows that females track the male’s reputation for honesty.
 
Furthermore, if the hen has already found food in the area, she will ignore the male’s calls because the information is not useful.  This suggests that the calls may form a mental representation of that event in the mind of the receiver. Of course, if the male is alone or there’s only another male around, the male may give a few brief calls, in case there’s a female out of sight, but then eats the food himself. Males don’t share with other males.
 
Their behavior in the face of dangerous predators is just as surprising. Rather than keeping quiet, they use vocalizations that indicate the type of predator present and how threatening it is. The type of call they make is also tailored to the predators’ hunting strategy. Ground predators hunt by stealth so both males and females make loud calls that alert their flock mates as well as deterring the predator from continuing the hunt. In contrast, aerial predators hunt by speed so staying hidden is important. Under these circumstances only males (most often the dominant) and hens with chicks are willing to take the risk of calling. This is because they have the most at stake. If a male warns his mate, then she and his offspring are more likely to survive. Again, calling is not reflexive. Males take into account which other individuals are in the area as well as their own risk before calling. Perhaps most surprisingly, males also appear to recognize if calling would put their rival male in danger and are more likely to call if it will put the rival at risk. 
 
This suggests that the male not only keeps track of his mating success but also his own risk of being caught and the location and presence of other males when determining how he will respond to a threat. I should emphasize that these aren’t Rudyard Kipling’s “Just So” stories. We rigorously experimentally test each behavior and each context to determine how and when the calls are used. We use techniques such as 3D animation and high-definition video and high-fidelity audio to simulate the natural interactions under controlled conditions. We also deploy remote cameras and microphones so that we can eavesdrop on the birds’ interactions without changing their behavior.
 
What caused you to start studying chickens specifically?  What interested you about them?
 
I’ve always been intrigued by the idea that higher cognitive abilities (like language and social contracts) evolved from the pressure of living as part of a social group.  Chickens have all the hallmarks of a species (stable social groups, dominance hierarchy, diverse array of vocalizations, etc) that should exhibit higher cognitive abilities and were therefore the prefect study animal. When I started, I had no idea how complex their lives could be and how endearing and intriguing they would be.
 
Had you interacted with chickens much before beginning your studies?  What was your opinion of chickens before you started working with them?
 
I grew up in suburban Maryland, USA. I had contact with the usual household pets (dogs, cats, budgies, hamsters) and other animals, like horses, but I’d never had any experience with chickens. I became a vegetarian when I was 13 so I didn’t even have that type of interaction with them.  I suppose like most people, I didn’t think much about them.
 
What, if anything, surprised you about chickens’ mental functions?
 
How quickly they learn and adapt to new situations. It’s actually quite challenging to work with them because they are such fast learners, especially the hens.  In one of my experiments testing the female’s responses to the male’s visual display, I built an enclosure with a remotely released door.  The females had to wait behind the door for 10 minutes before they could approach a video of a male who appeared to have food. One female became impatient and worked out how to release the latch herself.  After she did it once, I could never use her in that set-up again, even years later, because she knew from that one trial how to let herself out.  Frustrating and fascinating at the same time.
 
This exhibit asks three main questions: How do we as a society view chickens?  How do we treat chickens?  And who are chickens really?  How would you personally answer those questions?
 
Western society generally views chickens as a commodity, a resource to be used as we see fit. In general, people are happy not to know where their food comes from and their main concern is the safety of the food rather than the experience of the animal before it reaches their plate. It does seem that that may be changing slowly as more public attention (particularly in Europe) focuses on the experience of the animal on the farm and at slaughter. I am also heartened by the number of people who are keeping chickens in their backyards and who have them as pets. When I talk to people who have chickens, they are not surprised by what my research shows. They know their animals. People who have no contact with the birds often respond with incredulity. After I explain how we rigorously test each behavior, they have a new appreciation of the birds. 
Chickens are not the dim-witted creatures most people assume they are. They have individual personalities. They can recognize each other by their faces and voices. They have reputation; they eavesdrop on each other and they remember things for a long time. In many situations (although not all), they are fast learners. There are complex social interactions happening within a flock and all we have to do is listen and watch to see that they don’t just live in the moment. There is still a tremendous amount that we don’t know about them. 
 
In your paper “The Chicken Challenge: What Contemporary Studies of Fowl Mean for Science and Ethics,” published in Between the Species, you make the case that chickens’ cognitive capacities merit ethical treatment.  How do you think we as a culture should change our view and treatment of chickens?  How far should this ethic extend?
 
I think we need to recognize that they are capable of a greater understanding of their circumstances than we give them credit. It isn’t currently possible for us to conclusively determine whether the chickens’ extraordinary behavior is the result of higher cognitive capabilities or an advanced ability to make associations between actions and outcomes and to learn from their own experience and from watching others. But I think that even only affording them the lowest level of awareness mandates that we improve our treatment of them. 
 
Do you have any stories from your experience with chickens that you think would illustrate who chickens are to the public?
 
I gave a radio interview about my research a few years ago and at the end, one of the interviewers said, “Funny, before I talked to you, I thought chickens only had a 30 second memory.” I sincerely hope he was joking but fear that people really think that chickens only live in the present and have no ability to remember the past or to have expectations of the future. By assuming that the birds have such a limited understanding of their world, we can justify our current treatment of them.
 

Rooster "Tidbitting" in K-Lynn Smith's Studies

Chicken ethologist K-Lynn Smith has done extensive studies on "tidbitting" vocalizations in which a rooster calls hens to a high-quality food item.  The rooster starts by giving a series of staccato calls and bobbing his head up and down using his beak to point towards the food. He’ll often pick it up and drop it repeatedly, suppressing the urge to eat the tasty morsel. The female usually responds by approaching and taking the food from him. Why should a male give up food for the female? The reason is that females prefer to mate with the male that provides the most food.

“While chickens display feelings comparable to those of humans (such as grief, fear or happiness), they no doubt also possess their own exceptional forms of emotion and consciousness that even the most rigorous scientific tests may not begin to uncover—simply because these inimitable perspectives of chickens do not register conceptually or experientially within the human domain. Instead of fearing or dismissing this alterity, we might instead respect and take pleasure in the uniqueness of chickens, their inscrutable yet delightful chicken-ness, their complex and nature-loving chicken worlds.”— Author Annie Potts




[1] Potts, Annie. Chicken. London: Reaktion Books, 2012. Print.